Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner distinguish between achievement and ascription.
Hofstede distinguishes between long-term and short-term orientations.
Individual behaviors within a given culture can vary greatly.
Falk-Bánó (2004) specifies that “a stereotype can be helpful when it is consciously held, descriptive not evaluative, accurate, the first best guess about a group prior to having direct information, [and] modified, based on further observation and experience.” This describes the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
The values and attitudes found at the national level contrast “low-PDI countries” with “high-PDI countries”, with some countries placed in between. The countries from Hofstede's study were each given a score on an Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI).
In Hofstede's research, power distance is measured in a Power Distance Index (PDI). This refers to the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured, novel, unknown, surprising, and situations different from the usual—typical project management settings, and the degree to which a society tries to control the uncontrollable.Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner distinguish between sequential and synchronic orientations.Hall (1989) distinguishes between monochronic and polychronic attitudes. These theories consider relations between people, motivational orientation, definition of self and others, attitudes toward time, risk, control, context, and the environment. This paper describes the most well-known and accepted theories of cultural differences and illustrates them with examples from project management.Societies choose ways to cope with the inherent uncertainty of living.In this category Hofstede identifies three dimensions: masculinity versus femininity, amount of uncertainty avoidance, and power distance.Leading studies of cross-cultural management have been conducted by Hofstede (2000), Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998), Aycan (2000), Hall and Hall (1990), and others.These studies propose a set of cultural dimensions along which value systems can be studied.Value systems affect human thinking, feeling, and acting, and the behavior of organizations and institutions in relatively predictable ways.Cultural dimensions reflect basic problems that with which any society has to cope but for which solutions differ.