Most of these principles were formally proposed by Nicolaus Steno (Niels Steensen, Danish), in 1669, although some have an even older heritage that extends as far back as the authors of the Bible.
A few principles were recognized and specified later.
Geochronologists do not claim that radiometric dating is foolproof (no scientific method is), but it does work reliably for most samples.
It is these highly consistent and reliable samples, rather than the tricky ones, that have to be falsified for "young Earth" theories to have any scientific plausibility, not to mention the need to falsify huge amounts of evidence from other techniques.
The layers of rock are known as "strata", and the study of their succession is known as "stratigraphy".
Fundamental to stratigraphy are a set of simple principles, based on elementary geometry, empirical observation of the way these rocks are deposited today, and gravity.
For example, wave ripples have their pointed crests on the "up" side, and more rounded troughs on the "down" side.
It can't float in mid-air, particularly if the material involved is sand, mud, or molten rock.
The principle of superposition therefore has a clear implication for the age of a vertical succession of strata.
For example, the principle of superposition is based, fundamentally, on gravity.
In order for a layer of material to be deposited, something has to be beneath it to support it.